The mile is a unit of length in the imperial unit system with the symbol mi.
It was originally an English unit but was adopted by many countries who all had their own slight variation on definition. The English mile, however, is equal to 63,360 inches, 5280 ft or 1760 yards.
The UK still uses the mile on all roadway signs rather than the kilometre; its SI "equivalent". It used to have the symbol 'm' until SI was established and it was changed to avoid confusion with the unit metre.
The caliber is a unit of length based on the inch (imperial units) and uses the symbol cl.
It represents the internal diameter of a gun barrel and therefore more often than not, the size of the ammunition or round that gun requires to fire.
It is not always represented or converted exactly in inches so a table or "well-known" conversions are often used to depict measurements / ammo types instead.