The foot is a unit of length in the imperial unit system and uses the symbol ft.
One foot is exactly equal to 12 inches. It is also exactly equal to 0.3048m. One yard is comprised of three feet.
The foot is just behind the metre in terms of widespread use due to its previous popularity. The US is the only developed country that still uses the foot in preference to the metre.
The UK still uses feet to express human height more than metres.
The caliber is a unit of length based on the inch (imperial units) and uses the symbol cl.
It represents the internal diameter of a gun barrel and therefore more often than not, the size of the ammunition or round that gun requires to fire.
It is not always represented or converted exactly in inches so a table or "well-known" conversions are often used to depict measurements / ammo types instead.